GBF Report - Polystyrene Foam

1 Contents Abbreviations..........................................................................................................................................................................................2 Executive Summary..............................................................................................................................................................................3 1. Introduction........................................................................................................................................................................................4 1.1 Background..............................................................................................................................................................................4 1.2 Objectives.................................................................................................................................................................................4 1.3 Scope..........................................................................................................................................................................................4 2. Polystyrene (PS) production and use.........................................................................................................................................5 2.1 PS production..........................................................................................................................................................................5 2.1.1 PS types..................................................................................................................................................................................5 2.2 PS foam types..........................................................................................................................................................................6 2.2.1 Expanded polystyrene (EPS)...........................................................................................................................................7 2.2.1 Extruded polystyrene (XPS)............................................................................................................................................7 2.3 Chemical ingredients and additives................................................................................................................................8 Benzene – Styrene...............................................................................................................................................................8 Additives..................................................................................................................................................................................8 Intermediates and catalysts..............................................................................................................................................9 2.4 Adsorbed chemicals from the surrounding environment......................................................................................9 3. PS foam from docks and floats – environmental concerns..............................................................................................10 3.1. Fragmentation and degradation...................................................................................................................................11 Abiotic....................................................................................................................................................................................11 Biotic.......................................................................................................................................................................................12 3.2 Navigation and aesthetics................................................................................................................................................13 3.3 PS foam low recycling rates..............................................................................................................................................13 3.4 Distribution of PS foam litter in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River........................................................13 3.4.1 Transport.....................................................................................................................................................................13 3.4.2 Fate................................................................................................................................................................................14 Beaches and sediment.............................................................................................................................................14 Water..............................................................................................................................................................................17 Wildlife...........................................................................................................................................................................18 3.5 Ingestion by fish and wildlife...........................................................................................................................................18 3.6 Exposure to chemicals........................................................................................................................................................19 3.7 Effects.......................................................................................................................................................................................20 3.7.1 Freshwater species..................................................................................................................................................20 3.7.2 Marine species..........................................................................................................................................................22 3.7.3 Human health...........................................................................................................................................................22 4. Discussion and Conclusions........................................................................................................................................................23 4.1 Uncertainties and data gaps............................................................................................................................................23 4.2 Conclusions............................................................................................................................................................................23 4.3 Next steps...............................................................................................................................................................................24 4.4 Thank you to funders and supporters..........................................................................................................................24 5 . References..........................................................................................................................................................................................25 6 . Annexes ..........................................................................................................................................................................................32 Appendix 6 .1 White Foam .......................................................................................................................................................32 Appendix 6 .2 Blue Foam ..........................................................................................................................................................33 Appendix 6 .3 Styrene................................................................................................................................................................34

RkJQdWJsaXNoZXIy NDA3MzU4