Shorelines, Docks & Shoreline Structures

Water Levels Series In Fall 2021, Georgian Bay Forever (GBF) and the Georgian Bay Association(GBA) hosted a webinar series: Extreme Water Levels: Impacts and Strategies. This series was a collection of webinars aimed at answering questions, providing strategies to adapt your property and your budget, and raising awareness about the extremes and variabilities that will impact the ecosystem and your family's enjoyment of your favourite place on the Bay.

There were 3 webinars. This page addresses the SECOND webinar.

To see page summaries of the past 2 webinars - look to these links:
Water Levels: What's Happening? What's New? (Oct. 23, 2021) can be found here.
Septic Systems and Potable Water Vulnerabilities, Insurance & Planning, Coastal Infrastructure (Dec. 4, 2021) can be found here.
Stuctural damage water levels
Speakers included:
Roy Brooke is the Executive Director at Municipal Natural Assets Initiative
Rick Layzell - CEO of Boating Ontario Association
Brian Majka - Senior Restoration Ecologist from GEI ConsultantsAlex Ray from Payette Environmental Services, LLC. and the owner of Payette Trails
With Remarks by:
Elder Marilyn Capreol, Anishinaabe from Shawanaga First Nation - Founding member of the Conservation through Reconciliation Partnership Elder’s Lodge
Rolfe Jones: Executive Director and President of the Georgian Bay Association, and Adam Chamberlain, Chair of Georgian Bay Forever.
Aisha Chiandet: Water Scientist with the Severn Sound Environmental Association
There were 3 webinars. This page addresses the SECOND webinar.

To see page summaries of the past 2 webinars - look to these links:
Water Levels: What's Happening? What's New? (Oct. 23, 2021) can be found here.
Septic Systems and Potable Water Vulnerabilities, Insurance & Planning, Coastal Infrastructure (Dec. 4, 2021) can be found here.

COMPLETED/INFO HERE. Webinar 2: Shorelines, Docks & Shoreline Structures

Sat. Nov. 13, from 10 am to 12 pm.

Slides can be found here (PDF download).
Video. Watch the 2 hour webinar here.

The second webinar focused on:
    TOPIC A: Storms, waves and wakes - Natural Coastal Processes - Naturalizing Shorelines - Flooding - High Water Mark - Land Water Interface- Municipal Infrastructure
    TOPIC B - Coastal Infrastructure – Marinas & Shoreline Businesses – Docks/Other Shoreline Structures - Impacts & Adaptation Strategies - Regulations

Top 6 Major Takeaways from the November 13th Webinar: Shorelines, Docks & Shoreline Structure of the Extreme Water Levels series:

Download the detailed synoposis here (12 page PDF).

1) Waves typically originate from wind or disturbances such as boats. Fetch, depth and wind speed/duration are key factors in wave height. Bigger storms + deeper water = bigger waves closer to the shoreline. Gentler shoreline slopes and vegetation will dampen/dissipate wave energy and can be used as the basis for creating soft but stable shorelines

2) Wake boats should be operated in sufficiently deep water to protect bottom sediments and near shore vegetation. ‘Living shorelines’ absorb energy through the use of softer materials and live vegetation, and help buffer wave energy before it reaches shore.

3) There is a case to be made for approaching natural assets collectively, including that they can benefit from the delivery of core services, they can be managed (which is the focus of local government natural-asset management), and they are often over-used and under-recognized.

4) There are significant differences in the approach to the high-water mark across Georgian Bay’s coastal municipalities. Those marks that have been set are at a lower level than the 2019/20 water level, and these may need to be re-considered given higher water levels are expected in the future.

5) Water-level changes affect the many businesses that are part of our coastal infrastructure, including by increasing their capital and operating costs related to dock systems, shore-wall systems, and shoreline properties.

6) There are planning permission requirements for installing new/replacement docks and for relocating shoreline structures, as well as setback requirements, and some of these vary by municipality. Those involved in new construction or relocations should consider placing structures above the minimum setback from the high water mark required by the municipality to be prepared for higher water levels.


Extreme Water Levels: Impacts and Strategies Webinar Series

Water Levels Series

In 2020, our experts gave you the facts about water levels on the Great Lakes and in Georgian Bay. We answered 259 questions posed by 400 concerned citizens with experts reviewing our responses to ensure that everyone has the fact-based understanding of the issues and the limits under the existing water management systems in place. We brought this information to Municipal Councils around the Bay and after more than a year of combined effort with the Georgian Bay Association (GBA), Municipal Councils now have a solid fact-based understanding of what the issues are.

But there were even more questions asked around what actions could be taken to protect properties and shorelines around the Bay during high and low water extremes.

The Georgian Bay Forever’s (GBF) and GBA's Extreme Water Levels: Impacts and Strategies Webinar Series is a collection of webinars aimed at answering those questions, providing strategies to adapt your property and your budget, and raising awareness about the extremes and variabilities that will impact the ecosystem and your family's enjoyment of your favourite place on the Bay.

Each webinar BELOW focused on different topics. Information on all three can be accessed below

Webinar 1:
What's Happening?
What's New?

Water Levels COnfusion Georgian Bay

Webinar 2:
Shorelines,
Docks & Shoreline Structures

Stuctural damage water levels

Webinar 3: Septic Systems and Potable Water Vulnerabilities, Insurance & Planning, Coastal Infrastructure

Septics and Water Levels

What to know more basics around water levels?


Webinar Recordings

These webinars focus on water protection for Georgian Bay and are intended to be educational, provide tips on actions you can take, and add to public knowledge and discourse, and help to inform decision-making. With your help, our overall goal is to help to find and create real and long-lasting solutions to Georgian Bay water issues.
Click on a category below or just scroll down:

In addition to webinar recordings:
  • There are many videos or materials and articles on various topics from previous live symposiums. To find out if there is a content on a certain topic or event, please email info@gbf.org.
  • Videos Youtube on various topics including webinars at this page: Click here.
  • More content in our Publications page: Click here.
  • GBF Newsletters Online - These newsletters provide a great overview of projects, updates, articles, profiles on Georgian Bay Forever supporters, and on environmental issues in Georgian Bay. Click here.

2021 - OCT

Water Levels: What's happening? What's New? 2 Hr Webinar. Start webinar video.

2020

Water Levels: What Is Going On? 1 Hr Webinar Recording of factors that drive water levels. Start webinar video.

Aug 2021- Plastic Waters.

Environmental impacts of plastic litter: 1 Hr Webinar Recording.
Start webinar video.

July 2021- Is Plastic Recycling Working?

Effects of Wearing Plastic: 1 Hr Webinar Recording. Start webinar video.

July 2021- Effects of Wearing Plastic

Effects of Wearing Plastic: 1 Hr Webinar Recording. Start webinar video.

June 2020- Microfiber Pollution Update

Microfibers Diversion Study: 1 Hr Webinar Recording Update. Start webinar video.

Dec 2021- Septic Systems and Potable Water Vulnerabilities, Insurance & Planning, Coastal Infrastructure

2 hour video. Start webinar video.

Nov 2021- Shorelines, Docks & Shoreline Structures

2 hour video. Start webinar video.

July 2020- Property Resiliency

Build resiliency to face climate changes. 1/2 hour video. Start webinar video.


Septic Systems and Potable Water Vulnerabilities, Insurance & Planning, Coastal Infrastructure

Water Levels Series In Fall 2021, Georgian Bay Forever (GBF) and the Georgian Bay Association(GBA) hosted a webinar series: Extreme Water Levels: Impacts and Strategies. This series was a collection of webinars aimed at answering questions, providing strategies to adapt your property and your budget, and raising awareness about the extremes and variabilities that will impact the ecosystem and your family's enjoyment of your favourite place on the Bay.

There were 3 webinars. This page addresses the third webinar.

To see page summaries of the past 2 webinars - look to these links:
Water Levels: What's Happening? What's New? (Oct. 23, 2021) can be found here.
Shorelines, Docks and Shoreline Structures (Nov.13, 2021) can be found here.
Septics and Water Levels
Speakers included:

Dr. Neil Hutchinson: Hutchinson Environmental Services
Cheryl Evans: Director, Flood and Wildfire Resilience, Intact Centre on Climate Adaptation at the University of Waterloo Nicola Crawhall: Nicola’s consulting firm, Westbrook Public Affairs, led the secretariat that developed Action Plan 2030.
David Sweetnam: Executive Director of Georgian Bay Forever
Rupert Kindersley:Executive Director of the Georgian Bay Association

With Remarks by:

Elder Marilyn Capreol, Anishinaabe from Shawanaga First Nation - Founding member of the Conservation through Reconciliation Partnership Elder’s Lodge
Rolfe Jones: Executive Director and President of the Georgian Bay Association, and Adam Chamberlain, Chair of Georgian Bay Forever.
Aisha Chiandet: Water Scientist with the Severn Sound Environmental Association
There were 3 webinars. This page addresses the third webinar.

To see page summaries of the past 2 webinars - look to these links:
Water Levels: What's Happening? What's New? (Oct. 23, 2021) can be found here.
Shorelines, Docks and Shoreline Structures (Nov.13, 2021) can be found here.

COMPLETED/INFO HERE – Webinar 3: Septic Systems and Potable Water Vulnerabilities, Insurance & Planning, Coastal Infrastructure

Sat. Dec. 4, from 10 am to 12 pm.

Topics included:
    TOPIC A: Septic Systems & Potable Water. How vulnerable is your septic system? What are the options to resolve septic issues? How will potable water be affected by extreme water levels? What techniques/technologies are available to address these impacts?
    TOPIC B: Insurance. Flooding – extreme storm events – damage from wind and waves? What are the potential impacts on property insurance? What risks can be insured?
    TOPIC C: Planning and Infrastructure. Action Plan 2030 – review of key recommendations concerning support for individuals, businesses and municipal governments to address shoreline infrastructure impacts and shoreline resilience. What are the benefits of long-term planning vs executing short term solutions?

Slides can be found here.
Video. Watch the 2 hour webinar here.

Top 7 Major Takeaways from the December 4th Webinar: Shorelines, Docks & Shoreline Structure of the Extreme Water Levels series:

Download the detailed synoposis here (15 page PDF).

1) Septic-system design and construction will need to be adapted to the rising water levels that we can already anticipate, which includes siting tile fields on high ground (and can mean moving away from gravity-fed septic systems).

2) The many water-related consequences of climate change mean that we need to: 1) avoid consuming untreated surface water; 2) plan for an increased need for water treatment (filtration and chlorination); and 3) plan for the costs of upgrades to water-treatment systems.

3) A step-by-step approach to addressing the most common water damage-related risks includes a focus in the shorter term on completing simple, low-cost maintenance and upgrade actions, and in the longer term completing more complex upgrades after evaluating options with qualified professionals, government and insurance representatives. Select a particular approach to protecting your cottage based on: a) unique flood and erosion risks; 2) severity of risk; 3) budget; and 4) insurance coverages.

4) The mindset we bring to addressing ‘flood and erosion’ is shifting towards:’ 1) management with nature in mind (i.e., using nature-based – rather than ‘hardening’ – solutions); and 2) management with community-level (rather than lot-by-lot) approaches and future conditions in mind.

5) Discuss your coverages and options with your insurance representative, ask questions about premium discounts and about building back better after a loss, and check back with your insurer periodically given the rapidly changing state of insurance for home floods, overland floods and storm surges and the limited availability of government recovery assistance after large-scale disasters.

6) Four Action Plan 2030 recommendations address support for individuals, businesses and municipal governments to address shoreline infrastructure impacts and shoreline resilience: #4) establishing and funding shoreline resiliency priority zones; #8) increasing investment in light detection and ranging (LIDAR), floodplain mapping, and monitoring/modelling data; #10) ensuring access to easily understood climate change data and information; and #12) supporting natural and green infrastructure solutions.

7) There are many benefits of long-term planning over short-term solutions, and examples of long-term planning as it pertains to crib/concrete docks, shoreline and low-elevation structures, and septic systems.
There were 3 webinars. This page addresses the third webinar.

To see page summaries of the past 2 webinars - look to these links:
Water Levels: What's Happening? What's New? (Oct. 23, 2021) can be found here.
Shorelines, Docks and Shoreline Structures (Nov.13, 2021) can be found here.

Support MORE washing machine filters preventing microfibers polluting Ontario waterways

The results are in – a demonstrated solution that needs to be mass-scaled

Parry Sound Study

Most people wouldn't just throw plastics and other waste into the water knowingly. Unfortunately, we do so when we wash our clothes. In a washing machine cycle, our clothes shed up to hundreds of thousands of microfibers that go down the drain to wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), where many are caught, but billions get through to water bodies like Georgian Bay daily. Microfibers, anthropogenic fibers (< 5mm), are the most prevalent type of microplastic and other anthropogenic particle in the environment. The plastic, cotton, and other microfibers from our clothes and the chemicals they can contain - do not belong in the water, where they are continously being dumped. Studies have shown microfibre/plastic pollution is being found in the guts of many aquatic species, is travelling up the aquatic food chain, and that their physical and chemical properties can cause many species serious harm. While the impacts to humans are unknown, we are certianly consuming microfiber/plastic pollution at a rate of about a credit card a week.4 It can only keep getting worse unless action is taken. The Parry Sound Study shows that WASHING MACHINE FILTERS can catch and divert almost all the laundering microwaste from water bodies, but so few of us have them. Filters needs to be mass-implemented to help aquatic environments and water quality. (More study details here) READ on to see what you can do.

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Extreme Water Levels: What’s Happening? What’s New?

Water Levels Series

In Fall 2021, Georgian Bay Forever (GBF) and the Georgian Bay Association(GBA) hosted a webinar series: Extreme Water Levels: Impacts and Strategies. This series was a collection of webinars aimed at answering questions, providing strategies to adapt your property and your budget, and raising awareness about the extremes and variabilities that will impact the ecosystem and your family's enjoyment of your favourite place on the Bay. There were 3 webinars. This page addresses the FIRST webinar.

To see page summaries of the past 2 webinars - look to these links: Shorelines, Docks and Shoreline Structures (Nov.13, 2021) can be found here.
Septic Systems and Potable Water Vulnerabilities, Insurance & Planning, Coastal Infrastructure (Dec. 4, 2021) can be found here.

Read More


Water Level Factors

dock under water

Many factors impact water levels in Georgian Bay.

Understanding and projecting water levels is challenging.  Water levels are the result of the total of all inflowing and outflowing water to Georgian Bay. Some factors add to water levels, some subtract, while others can do both.

The 8 major water level drivers -precipitation, evaporation, climate change, groundwater, connecting channels, diversions, control structures, and isostatic adjustment- are identified and discussed below. However, because none of these drivers acts in isolation,  complex relationships and unpredictability make it hard for forecasters to predict water levels accurately even beyond 6 months. Past trends, moreover, no longer inform projections about future levels. Researchers, however, do believe that rapid transitions between extreme highs and lows in the Great Lakes will represent a “new normal.”

Webinar Series Extreme Water Levels

Precipitation

Precipitation takes the form of rain, snow, hail and sleet, and is a factor that adds additional water to Georgian Bay, increasing water levels.

Precipitation occurs when a portion of the atmosphere becomes saturated with water vapor and reaches a point of 100% relative humidity. As water vapour condenses, droplets become bigger and bigger. Eventually, these water droplets become heavy enough where they fall, or “precipitate,” to Earth’s surface.

Precipitation may fall directly onto Georgian Bay, but it can also fall on the land that forms the Georgian Bay watershed, percolating through the soil, and running off the land.

The Great Lakes received record precipitation levels over the last 3 years, resulting in more water entering than leaving the system. In fact, from 1951 to 2017, total precipitation increased by 14% in the Great Lakes Basin, representing a huge immediate supply of water to lake surfaces like Lake Michigan and Lake Huron.

Evaporation

Evaporation occurs when liquid is turned into vapour and is a factor that subtracts water from Georgian Bay, decreasing water levels.  Driven by water temperature, air temperature, and relative humidity, evaporation occurs primarily in the cooler autumn months, as cold, dry air receives moisture from comparatively warmer bodies of water sitting below. This occurs until the air reaches a point of 100% humidity. If evaporated water vapour condenses into rain or snow, the process will be reversed. This reversal, however, also releases heat, bringing cool air down to continue the evaporative cycle.

Ice coverage bears an important role in influencing evaporation. Thicker ice takes longer to melt in the spring months, meaning more time is needed for lakes to warm up.  As an outcome, less evaporation will take place the following fall. Conversely, thinner ice means water warms up more quickly, resulting in more evaporation in autumn. As ice coverage has declined by 71% since the 1970s, the impact of evaporation in the coming fall seasons is expected to increase. In fact, the last time Georgian Bay froze over completely was 2015.

The evaporative process is also beginning earlier due to warmer winters, which also result in warmer waters. Lake Superior, for instance, lost an extra 10 inches in 2011/2012 due to an early start evaporative season! For more information on evaporation, ice, and water levels, please click here.

Since the 1990s, studies show that evaporation has played an increased role in driving water levels.  However, while evaporation has increased in the fall and winter months, it has been more than offset by increased precipitation over the past three years.

Climate Change

Largely due to the intensified human activity which occurred during and after the Industrial Revolution, climate change is in part the result of the release of heat-trapping greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere. This effect is intensified by melting permafrost which reawakens natural methane-emitting processes. Since 2001, 18 of the 19 hottest years on record have occurred! In the Great Lakes Basin, average temperatures have increased by 2.3 degrees Fahrenheit since 1951.

Climate change is believed to alter the long-standing balance between evaporation and precipitation. Both are expected to become more intense and less unpredictable, causing higher highs and lower lows in water levels. Heavy precipitation events are up by 35% in the Great Basin since the mid 1950s.

Storm surges are also predicted to strengthen and reoccur more frequently over time, with the wind pushing water across the Bay during a storm, creating temporary increases in water levels on the side wind is blowing into.

Extreme floods and rainfall events are now occurring 4 time more often than in 1980 due to the increased presence of water vapour in storm systems.

Moreover, warmer temperatures suggest greater ice melting. Forecasts suggest that we will have completely ice-free years in the Great Lakes in the next couple of decades.

Groundwater

Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in rock and soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. Flowing and collecting below rock formations at different rates, ground water enters Georgian Bay from a variety of directions within the Georgian Bay watershed.

Record precipitation has increased the Great Lakes Basin ground water reserves by 50 cubic kilometers from 2013 to 2019, signifying that little to no ability remains for the Great Basin land to soak water up immediately. With increasing precipitation, ground water reservoirs are expected to remain at or near capacity. Uncollected water runs off the land to eventually increase water levels in the Great Lakes.

More rain falling on the surface will increase runoff and ground water movement. When surfaces are saturated, the soils in some places become more mobile and there may be increasing sluffs of material into the lake. More surface rainfall that can’t soak into the soils may also result in more surface stream volumes and energies and that may result in increases in erosion. All of these examples are driven by one simple rule – water flows downhill.

Unlike precipitation and evaporation, ground water is believed to be a relatively minor driver in adding water to Georgian Bay.

Connecting Channels

Inflows and outflows through connecting channels have a relatively strong impact on water levels in Georgian Bay. Water flows into Lake Huron and Georgian Bay from Lake Superior via St. Mary's River. The Straights of Mackinac connect Lake Michigan and Lake Huron, maintaining both lakes’ water levels in a state of near equilibrium. Water flows out of Lake Huron through the St. Clair River, and water flows out of Lake Michigan-Huron through the Chicago diversion which diverts water away from Lake Michigan into the Upper Mississippi River basin.

Outflow through the reaches connecting Lake Michigan-Huron to Lake Erie is about double the average evaporative losses from Lake Michigan-Huron itself. Moreover, if sustained, guidelines would result in an impact of 13 centimetres on Lake Michigan-Huron water levels from St. Mary’s River inflows.

Diversions

The major diversions that affect water levels in Georgian Bay are diversions into Lake Superior at Long Lac and Ogoki and the Chicago diversion out of Lake Michigan.

The Long Lac and Ogoki diversions, located in northern Ontario, divert water from a portion of the Hudson Bay watershed into the Lake Superior basin. The Long Lac diversion began in 1939 and the Ogoki diversion began in 1943. They are operated by Ontario Power Generation.

The Chicago diversion diverts water from the Lake Michigan watershed into the Upper Mississippi River basin. The Chicago diversion began in the early 1800s and increased in 1900 after the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal was completed. The first US Supreme Court decree in limiting the Chicago diversion was effective in 1925, and the latest decree of 1967, modified in 1980, limits the annual diversion to 91 cubic meters per second (3,200 cubic feet per second). It is operated by the US Army Corps of Engineers.

Diversions have a much smaller impact on water levels than evaporation or precipitation. For instance, while Ogoki and Long Lac add 6000 cubic feet/second to the system and Chicago diverts about 3200 cubic feet/second out, the average evaporation from the surface of Lake Michigan-Huron alone is about 87,000 cubic feet/second. This is 29 times greater than the outflow from the Chicago diversion!

For more information, visit refer to the IJC's page or Factsheet.

Control Structures

The only control structure impacting water levels in Georgian Bay is the control structure located on St. Mary’s River, which regulate inflows into Lake Michigan-Huron from Lake Superior. There are no control structures in place to regulate the Lake Michigan-Huron outflows.

Control structures, like those at St Mary’s, must keep in mind different considerations in determining which gates to open and by how much. Some of these assessments include upstream and downstream impacts, effects on agriculture, commercial fisheries, commercial navigation, fish, wildlife, power generation, industrial facilities, municipal infrastructure like sewage system, recreation and tourism, and residential shoreline property, and First Nations rights.

In 2016, Georgian Bay Forever selected the renowned international engineering consulting firm AECOM to conduct an examination of over a dozen structural alternatives for lake level control, particularly water leaving lake Michigan-Huron. The study identified 3 possible control structures that could be used at the St. Clair River: in-stream turbines, inflatable dams and a park fill/control gates system. Read the full report.

Isostatic Adjustment

While glaciers do not appear to have much impact today, historically they’ve had massive impacts on water levels.

10,000 years ago, Lake Superior, Michigan, Huron and Georgian Bay were part of one large lake called the “Main Lake Algonquin.” This massive body of water drained down through the St Clair Basin into early Lake Erie, to early Lake Ontario and finally through the Niagara River into the Champlain Sea.

2000 years after, the Laurentide Ice sheet moved back. Consequently, changes to the Basin’s hydrology occurred, as Lake Superior went out through the North Bay, into Ottawa River and then into the Atlantic Ocean. No water flowed out from Lake Huron into Lake Erie. Additionally, as the ice sheets melted, the weight of ice removed itself from the North American shield, and the land tilted upwards as weight was released. Humans, however, can do nothing about this.

The modern-day Basin we see today connects from the tip of Lake Superior, through the lakes over Niagara Falls, into Lake Ontario, the St Lawrence River, and out into the Atlantic.

Watch this video about water levels


Objectives to mitigate extreme water levels

According to ECCC, the range of water levels is increasing. This can impact your property. In the last decade, we have seen water levels in Georgian Bay break records on the high and low side, causing damage, hardships and anxiety. In 2020, Lake Huron exceeded its HIGH record monthly levels for 8 months in a row (Jan to Aug), and in January 2013, the all-time record LOW was set at 175.57 metres. The all-time record high recorded was set in 1986 of 177.50 metres. That makes a current variation range over time of 1.929 meteters or 6.33 feet; and while fluctuation is natural and important, the range and variability are increasing due to climate change.

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Forecasting Water Levels

Forecasting Water Levels – General Overview

By David Sweetnam, Executive Director of Georgian Bay Forever (Last updated December 2020) Water levels are the visual result of the sum total of all inflowing and outflowing water to a water body such as those of our Great Lakes. This sum total is referred to as the total net basin supply. Historically water levels followed the precipitation as the major determinant, but from roughly the 1990s to 2014, that changed towards evaporation, of which there were few ways of measuring properly. More recently, there is more increased precipitation and longer wet seasons including the last 3 years where some records were broken. As the two major water levels determinants, the balance between evaporation and precipitation is what is determining where the water levels will go in the future.

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Diverting, reducing, and re-using plastic

Divert and Capture Plastics Picture

"The growth of plastics production during the past 70 years has outpaced that of any other manufactured material. The same properties that make plastics so versatile in innumerable applications—durability and resistance to degradation—make these materials difficult or impossible for nature to assimilate. Thus, without a well-designed and tailor-made management strategy for end-of-life plastics, humans are conducting a singular experiment on a global scale, in which billions of metric tons of material will accumulate across all major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems on the planet." ~Professor Roland Geyer, Professor in Industrial Ecology and Pollution Prevention, and author and co-author on several reports on plastic pollution.1

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