Global Circulation Models (GCMs) form the basis of most climatological work, but these models evolve with time and better data. Consider these examples:
- Deep ocean temperature increases and the discovery that collapsing deep ocean circulation patterns will happen much earlier than previously thought - have only recently been reported in the literature explaining the “hiatus” period cited by climate deniers and prompting yet another call for the refinement of the Global Circulation Models.
- This is also seen more locally for GBF in the Great Lakes where it was only last summer that instrumentation to measure over-lake precipitation and evaporation was installed on a Great Lakes ship enabling future refinements in the GCM Great Lakes contribution and Regional Circulation Models (RCMs) for the Great Lakes microclimate.
- NASA’s Goddard Institute of Space Studies (GISS), notes that “a major focus of GISS GCM simulations is to study the human impact on the climate as well as the effects of a changing climate on society and the environment. The GISS GCM is prominently featured in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) reports (the upcoming AR6 as well as past reports), and over 50 TB of climate model results have been publicly archived for the 5th Coupled Model Intercomparison Project. This project has included simulations for the historic period, future simulations out to 2300, and past simulations for the last 1000 years, the last glacial maximum and the mid-Holocene.”